Falls: 5 - 9 years
How big a problem is it?
Slips and falls are a part of being a kid, as children run, play and explore their growing abilities. Most may not be serious, but many are, resulting in broken bones, cuts or head injuries. Falls caused nearly half of all hospitalisations in the period 2013-2017. That amounted to more than 3,700 hospitalisations per year or 396 in every 100,000 children.
Who does it affect?
This age group 5 - 9 is at the greatest risk of fall-related injuries. Around 30 children aged 5-9 years were hospitalised for a fall-related injury per week. The impact by age group depends on where the location was. One-third of falls hospitalisations for this age group occurred at school, followed by 24% at home and 6% at a sporting or athletic ground.
When we try and understand causes and look at any association with particular equipment we find that half involved playground equipment for the 5 - 9 age group.
|The severity of a fall injury depends on the height a child falls, if they hit anything on the way and what they land on. A fall height from as little as 90cm is a risk, so managing height risk, household objects and the quality of any fall cushioning are all key.|
Use approved safety gates at the top and bottom of stairs and attach them to the wall if possible.
Properly install window guards to prevent window falls. Windows above the first floor should have an emergency release device in case of fire.
Bunk beds encourage climbing so they should only be used by children over nine years of age. Make sure there are guardrails on the top bunk and that the opening for entering and exiting is no more than 40cm wide.
Take a look around your house and move any objects and furniture away from windows that could be used by children to stand or climb on.
Keep young kids strapped in when using high chairs, infant car seats, shopping trolleys, swings and strollers. Remember, if your toddler is in a car seat, place it on the floor, rather than on a table or other furniture.
Wet floors are very slippery so can be a slipping hazard for children. Wipe up spills immediately and encourage children to sit when eating and drinking to reduce spills.
Talk to your children about how to be safe on a trampoline.
We suggest the rule is ‘one at a time’ and that’s because there is a lot of evidence associating more than one with accidents. One at a time removes others that your child could collide with.
Children under six years can run into trouble on a trampoline so it’s best to find another activity to keep them entertained.
Find playgrounds with shock-absorbing surfaces. Playgrounds with loose fill materials such as wood chips, mulch, or sand should have a minimum depth of 30cm..
Steer your children to age-appropriate activities to help prevent falls from play equipment.
High porches, decks, stairs and balconies all have a high fall risk, so try and find alternative play areas for your children. If that’s not possible, make sure you keep an eye on them at all times.
Ensure your child is wearing a helmet when riding a bike, scooter or a skateboard to protect their head from a serious injury if they fall.
If your child has had a fall, they may have bone fracture or a serious head injury. If they are in pain or for any of the following reasons, call 111 immediately. Do this if your child:
There are also some things you can do straight away:
Fractures First Aid
Keep the injured arm or leg still. Someone who knows how to, could use a splint to keep it still.
You can support the injured arm or leg with a pillow or sling.
Raise the arm or leg higher than the heart to help reduce swelling.
Your child will need pain relief.
If your child does not need ambulance-level care, take them to the nearest hospital Emergency Department.
Brain injury/loss of consciousness First Aid
Follow Drs ABCD for start CPR
D Dangers? Check for any dangers to yourself such as electricity or traffic.
R Responsive? Check responsiveness by calling loudly and shaking the child's arm.
S Send for help. Dial 111 and confirm an ambulance is on its way. Use the appropriate emergency number in other countries.
A Airway. Open the airway by moving the head into a neutral position and lifting the chin. Do not tilt the head back too far.
B Breathing. Look and feel for movement of the lower chest and stomach area. Listen and feel for air coming from the nose or mouth.
C CPR. If the child is not breathing, start CPR - 30 compressions to 2 breaths. Put the child on a firm surface. Place 2 fingers of one hand (for a baby) or the heel of one hand (for a child) in the centre of the chest just below the nipples. Push down hard and fast 30 times in about 15 seconds (push down one-third of chest depth).
Once you have completed 30 compressions (pushes) on the chest, breathe into the baby's mouth 2 times. Seal your lips around the baby's mouth and nose. For a child over 1, you may need to breathe into their mouth and pinch their nose closed. Gently puff into the child until you see their chest rise.
Continue with the cycle of 30 chest compressions and 2 breaths until the ambulance arrives.
D Defibrillator. Attach defibrillator as soon as it is available and follow prompts.
Link to Safekids' resources
Falls Injury Prevention Resources
Links to other organisations' resources
Falls Injury Prevention Resources
Ministry of Education information on Playgrounds and Equipment
CDC - Falls, Playground Safety